Día Internacional de la Mujer: la historia

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Lejos de los bombones, de las flores y demás regalos, el Día Internacional de la Mujer tiene una historia de lucha que hasta el día de hoy sigue vigente. Tras años de manifestaciones en orden de promover la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres del mundo, un 8 de marzo de 1910, en la II Conferencia Internacional de Mujeres Socialistas, se proclamó tal fecha como el Día Internacional de la Mujer Trabajadora. En Argentina, hay 300 denuncias de violencia de género por día, y la tasa de femicios, crece notablemente.

¿Por qué se conmemora el 8 de marzo?

Fue el Siglo XX, el siglo de las matanzas y de los  reconocimientos definitivos de los derechos de la mujer. El 3 de mayo de 1908 se realizó el primer acto por el Día de la Mujer en un teatro de Chicago, las socialistas Gertrude Breslau Hunt y Corinne Brown estuvieron al frente. Un año después, exactamente el 28 de febrero de 1909 se celebró en Nueva York el «Día Nacional de la Mujer» organizado por las Mujeres Socialistas luego de la huelga realizada el año anterior por trabajadores textiles que protestaron por las nefastas condiciones a las que eran sometidas al trabajar. Fue así como al menos 15.000 mujeres marcharon para hacer valer sus derechos, reclamaron por: la reducción de la jornada laboral, mejoras salariales y el derecho a votar. En noviembre de ese mismo año se realizó el «Levantamiento de las 20.000», más conocido como «La Huelga de las Camiseras»  fue el grito de protesta de miles empleadas textiles.

"Huelga de las camiseras", noviembre de 1909.
«Huelga de las camiseras», noviembre de 1909.

El 8 de marzo de 1910, en la Conferencia Internacional de Mujeres Socialistas en Copenhague, donde el reclamo central fue el sufragio universal para todas las mujeres y, a propuesta de Clara Zetkin (líder del Levantamiento de las 20.000 y perseguida gremial), se proclamó el Día Internacional de la Mujer Trabajadora. Dicha moción fue respaldada unánimemente por más de 100 mujeres procedentes de 17 países. Las pioneras en la reivindicación de los derechos de las mujeres Rosa Luxemburgo, Aleksandra Kolontái, Nadezhda Krúpskaya e Inessa Armand, también participaron.

[pullquote]Al menos 15.000 mujeres marcharon para hacer valer sus derechos reclamaron por la reducción de la jornada laboral, mejoras salariales y el derecho a votar.[/pullquote]

El 11 de marzo de 1911 se celebró por primera vez el Día Internacional de la Mujer Trabajadora en Alemania, Austria, Dinamarca y Suiza. Más de un millón de personas participaron en los actos alrededor del mundo donde volvieron a exigir por el derecho a votar, a ocupar cargos públicos, a tener igualdad laboral y académica. Pero sólo pasaron 6 días para que el cielo se tiña de gris: el 25 de marzo de 1911 143 jóvenes trabajadoras, la mayoría de origen inmigrante, murieron producto de un incendio en la fábrica de camisas Triangle Shirtwaist (Nueva York). Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y la Revolución Rusa, una serie de conflictos pusieron nuevamente de pie a cientos de mujeres trabajadoras que otra vez quisieron hacerse escuchar: «no las callan nunca más».

Incendio en la fábrica de camisas Triangle Shirtwaist (Nueva York), 25 de marzo de 1911.
Incendio en la fábrica de camisas Triangle Shirtwaist (Nueva York), 25 de marzo de 1911.

Argentina y la incesante lucha de las mujeres

Lamentablemente, en Argentina la tasa de violencia de género y femicidios crece notablemente. Actualmente, Argentina recibe 300 denuncias por violencia de género por día. La línea telefónica gratuita 144 ofrece contención, información y asesoramiento sobre la violencia de género, y los llamados que recibió en 2015 fueron en un 98,2 % de los casos, víctimas mujeres. Además de la línea telefónica gratuita, el CNM se encarga de ofrecer refugios para aquellas mujeres que estén atravesando situaciones de violencia o sometidas a algún tipo de maltrato.

Ni una menos (Ni una muerta más, ni una menos) fue una multitudinaria marcha de protesta en contra de la violencia de género que se dio en varias ciudades de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay el 3 de junio de 2015. Miles de miles de personas alzaron la voz para decirle basta a la violencia, para pedir que no las maten, para ser escuchados: «La violencia deja marcas, no verlas deja femicidios». Hoy, casi un año después, la lucha continúa.

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